Thursday, September 12, 2013

Hazard and prevention

Hazard Source  Hazard Sample Risk Controls 
Storm/Rain Lightening Shelter from storms, stay dry 
Snow/Sleet Hypothermia, Snow blindness Goggles/sunglasses 
Wind Blown over, wind chill 
Mist/fog/low cloud Getting lost Navigational sills, equipment (compass, maps, GPS, radio beacons), detailed itinerary, plans and contact details at base, adequate rations, including emergency. 
UV exposure Sunburn Suitable clothing, sunblock and hat 
High temperatures  Heat exhaustion Adequate supplies of water, electrolyte supplements, suitable clothing, shade 
 HyperthermiaAs above, plus avoid over-exertion, certain drugs, alcohol 
Low temperatures Hypothermia/Frostbite Cold weather gear, camping equipment, stay dry, out of wind 
Uplands Loose/falling rocks, falls Good footwear, hard hat, avoid climbing, unstable areas, use proper equipment and skills 
Mudslides Avoidance 
Reduced oxygen Acclimatisation 
Lowlands (including below ground)  Soft ground, roof fall, radon, floods, oxygen deficient/poisonous atmosphere  Avoidance, knowledge of terrain, local knowledge, no lone working, gas detection, breathing apparatus 
Tropics Heat exhaustion Correct clothing, equipment 
Marine/Coastal Currents, riptides, abnormal waves Knowledge of conditions, buoyancy aids 
Inland waters, lagoons Tides, flotsam and jetsam, quicksand, loose rocks, flash floods, drowing, sludge pits, underwater obstacles, unstable substrate Knowledge of tides, local conditions, stay out of water, buoyancy aids 
Woodland Fire No fires or smoking, tree climbing gear and skills 
Rocky areas Falls, chippings, rock falls Care with hammers and sample removal; goggles, gloves 
Urban Vehicles, assault Road safety skills, local knowledge, escorts, care in questioning 
Roads and railways Vehicles, trains, electricity Avoidance, permits, guide 
Farm stock Bulls, pigs, dogs Observance of warning signs 
Flora and fauna Poisonous/irritant plants, fungi, reptiles, arthropods Proper clothing, local knowledge, repellents, antidotes 
Microbiological Weil's Disease Rubber gloves 
Tetanus, Malaria, Cholera, Typhoid Vaccination, Prophylaxis
Lyme diseaseLight-coloured clothing 
Algal toxins Hand hygiene 
E coli, CampylobacterHand hygiene 
Food borne illness Good food hygiene practice, medical backup 
Water-borne infectionWound infectionSuitable clothes, hygiene, First Aid practice 
GeneralMedical evac, vaccination (if required), insect repellent 

Water pollution, dumpsHarmful chemicals, toxic/flammable gases, wastesStay out of water, test kits, correct clothing, purification methods, local knowledge, avoidance, PPE
Machinery, plant, tools/equipment Entanglement, trapping, crushing, etc, sudden failureGuarding, training, maintenance, spares
Generators, equipmentShock, fire, exposed circuits, differing safety standardsUse low voltages, correct use, guarding
Human activity
Farming, forestry, industrialMachinery, chemicals, vehicles, felling, static and mobile machinery, buildings, vehicles, large plant and machines at open cast sites and quarriesAvoidance, access permits, local knowledge, guides
Excavations, mines, quarries i.e. 'confined spaces'Toxic gas, flooding, asphyxiation, explosive mixes, roof fall/collapse, hidden shafts, dead ends, failure of props/supports Oxygen/other gas monitor, radon/radiation monitor, breathing apparatus, other PPE, local knowledge, no lone working, permits
MilitaryExplosion, ammunitionDo not touch explosives, detonators, fuses, suspect objects, etc.
Waste disposalHazardous materialsAvoid refuse tips, landfill sites
Hunting/ShootingFirearmsAvoid area, observe warning signs
Climbing Rock-fallsCorrect equipment, local knowledge
Horse riding CollisionTraining, riding helmet, correct equipment
ATVs/off-roaders Collision
SkiingAvalanche, collisionCheck weather forecasts, seek local advice
Work procedures
BoatsSinking, swamping, blown out to seaSeamanship, sailing training
DivingDrowning, bendsTraining (use of equipment/techniques)
Working at heights (>2 metres)FallsHarness, safety ropes etc., correct equipment, training
Cooking/heatingCO poisoning, fireTraining, gas detector
VehiclesCollision, being struck, fuel fires, loose loads, hazardous terrainDriving competence, training, restrict U/G drivers, extinguishers
SamplingHard rock splintersPPE
Work abroad
VehiclesAs aboveUse of local drivers, knowledge of local laws/penalties
CateringFood-bourne illnessAvoid higher risk foods (e.g. ready to eat, milk, ice, unwashed salads, shellfish)
Water-bourne illnessPotable water, purification tablets, bottled water
Local factorsRestrictions on photography, differing customs/sense of humour, sexual harassment, criminal elementLocal knowledge, guide, circumspect behaviour
Health Illness, infection (including hepatitis and HIV)
AccommodationAvailability, suitability, sanitation, securityHealth insurance, see above
Civil unrest, International tensionsArmed conflict, terrorist activityLocal knowledge, advance arrangements, FC Office advice
Other stressorsAccommodation problems, differing expectations, crime, language/communication problems, isolation, remoteness, lack of family/peer support, workloadContact arrangements, support
Lone workingIsolationCommunications, always within hailing distance of others, ensure your location and movements are known
HealthPre-existing conditionsHealth declaration, special arrangements
Food intolerance/allergyHealth declaration, special arrangements
Foot problemsFoot care
Lack of fitness, exhaustionAdequate preparation
BehaviourGroup dynamics, relationshipsKnowledge of standards required, sensible standards, respect for other people/cultures, comply with leader instructions
SamplingLegal problemsTake only what is permitted, leave site clean and tidy, minimise disturbance to crops, livestock, landscape, only enter private/restricted areas after gaining permission
ClothingVariousSuitable for climate, area, activities, customs, laws, carry spare items, suitable footwear
High placesFalls, material falling/slipping, unguarded mine shafts, unstable cliffsStay away from tops and bottoms of steep slopes, mine shafts, etc., quarry/cliff/bank edges
EnvironmentalSites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), conservation areas, etc.Avoid, permits


Sunday, September 8, 2013


Java Runtime Environment Java Development Kit Java Virtual Machine Just In Time Compiler
Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is an implementation of the JVM. JDK is a software development kit (SDK) or program development environment for writing java applets and applications. JVM becomes an instance of JRE at runtime of a java program.  It is widely known as a runtime interpreter. JIT is the part of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM).
All browsers including Internet Explorer, Firefox and Chrome can work with JRE to execute java programs. It consists of runtime environment (JRE) that "sits on top" of the operating system layer. JVM has an instruction set and manipulates various memory areas at run time. It is used to improve performance of JVM and speed up the execution time.
JRE is meant for users to execute java programs. Java Development Kit (JDK) is meant for Programmers, contains various development tools like Java libraries, Java source compilers, Java debuggers, bundling and deployment tools. Thus for different hardware platforms one has corresponding implementation of JVM available as vendor supplied JREs.  JIT compiles parts of the byte code that have similar functionality at the same time, and hence reduces the amount of time needed for compilation.
JRE are platform specific Like JRE, JDK are also platform specific Like JRE JVMs are also platform specific JIT is part of Java Virtual Machine.

NIIT's Bhavishya Jyoti Scholarship 2013. Test Date: 22 Sept

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